Glossary (A)

Glossary terms, covering electronic products with the letter A.

A/D or A/N

Analog/Digital and Analog/Digital. Converting an analog signal into a digital signal.

AV

Devices or systems that also operate as audio and video equipment mainly for the home cinema.

AV Amplifier

An Audio-Video amplifier is designed for the home-cinema. It allows and manages the audio and video sources and breaks down the different sound channels to reproduce the "cinema" experience on 5 speakers or more.

A2DP (Advance Audio Distribution Profile)

Standard stereo audio transmission used with Bluetooth technology enabling direct audio streaming between a source and a Bluetooth receiver. According to A2DP the audio streaming usually uses the SBC codec with a throughput of up to 128 Kbps.

AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)

Advanced Audio Coding, considered to be the long-term replacement for the famous but aging MP3 format. Used by Apple in iTunes and all mobile devices of the brand such as the iPod, iPhone and iPad. AAC is characterized by a very high compression rate and superior quality to MP3. With more comprehensive and hard-hitting in the midrange particularly, AAC is available in a version called HE-AAC, that is optimized for voice programs.

Analog Signal

Refers to an audio or video signal including storage, transport or processing that are transmitted via an electrical voltage. This technique requires components and connectors of the highest quality and is very sensitive to electromagnetic interference. A digital signal requires a lesser amount of electrical power and has a greater interference tolerance throughout the course of the electrical signal, hence its very high quality.

Android

Google operating system for smartphones and tablet computers. Designed from a Linux kernel, the open source operating system integrates all functions necessary for the operation of a smartphone or a touch pad as well as many of Google applications such as Gmail, Google Maps, etc. Just like the AppStore for Apple products, there is an online store called Google Play which includes many downloadable free or paid applications for use with your android device.

AC3

AAC is an audio compression algorithm developed by Dolby Laboratories and used particularly in the digital audio standard Dolby Digital. Though surpassed by newer algorithms such as AAC, AC3 remains in audio tracks on Blu-Ray and DVD movies.

ADA: Analog Distribution Amplifier

Electronic circuit used in sound or home automation to transmit sound over a large distance.

Acoustic

Dealing with the properties, production, reproduction, propagation and reception of sound.

PCMCIA Adapter

Interface in the format of a "credit card" that inserts into a laptop equipped with the suitable connection like a memory card reader, modem, wireless card, etc.

ADC

Analog to Digital Converter.

Anynet+ (HDMI-CEC)

Name given by Samsung to the CEC-compatible HDMI standard for its products. HDMI integrates a protocol for control and communication between compatible devices interconnected via an HDMI cable. CEC (Consumer Electronic Control) makes it possible to create a dialogue between the various links in the home theater system. Control technology offered by the CEC protocol is now integrated into the majority of devices offered by major brands. Available on DVD players, DVD recorders, Blu-ray players, flat screens TV's, amplifiers and home cinema equipment.

ADPCM

Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation. It is an audio compression algorithm used in particular for telephony.

MAC Address

Medium Access Control. Unique physical address of any device connected to a network (computer, phone, printer, etc.).

Advanced HAD

Present on camcorders, Advanced HAD technology reduces video noise when recording in low light conditions.

apt-X

Compatible with Bluetooth A2DP Stereo devices, the apt-X codec provides relatively near-CD quality audio. With a compression ratio of 4:1 on average, music quality is generally good.

Advanced Music Optimizer

Optimization compressed audio (MP3 type) developed by Onkyo. While MP3 or AAC files produce good sound through headphones of a portable music player, the limitations of these compressed files quickly become noticeable when playing on a quality home theater system. This is due to the loss of a significant amount of binary information at high frequencies during the compression process. To remedy this, Onkyo has developed advanced optimization technology (Advanced Music Optimizer) to compensate for the loss of binary information and improve the quality of compressed audio signals. The sound is clearer and more expansive. This technology also includes a function of loudness which further improves the audio character of compressed files.

Low Latency apt-X

Apt-X codec optimized for very low latency between sending and receiving audio signal. While the standard Bluetooth has a latency of about 150ms, the apt-X codec has a very Low Latency of only 32ms. With this very low latency you can enjoy the sound of videos or games from a smartphone or tablet to a Bluetooth speaker, without incurring a delay between the picture and sound.

Advanced Sound Retriever (ASR)

The compression of your music in MP3 and WMA format that is capable of storing an increased number of songs at a reduced quality. In return, this compression often results in loss of sound information, usually inaudible on a portable radio or MP3 player. The integration of advanced technologies in Pioneer products overcomes this disadvantage by extrapolating the information lost during compression, for a reproduction closer to the original.

Aquos Link (HDMI-CEC)

Name given by Sharp for its CEC-compatible HDMI products. HDMI integrates a protocol for control and communication between compatible devices interconnected via an HDMI cable. CEC (Consumer Electronic Control) makes it possible to create a dialogue between the various links in the home theater system.

Advanced YST

Advanced Yamaha Active Servo Technology (Advanced YST) is a unique system in which the speaker and amplifier work together to cancel out impedance so the speaker unit has a perfectly linear motion. Advanced YST helps to ensure the highest sound pressure levels and overall performance in small volumes.

AE

Auto Exposure. Automatic exposure mode for a digital camera or camcorder.

AES (Audio Engineering Society)

International body defining professional standards for audio.

AES/EBU

Professional digital interface, similar to the S/PDIF but with symmetrical wiring (XLR connector). This interface is available on professional DAT and some high-end converters. This connection uses a XLR3 outlet and works to impedances between 30 and 90 ohms.

Artifact

Minor visual defects present in an image (photo or video). Image compression ratio can lead to visible artifacts if the rate is too high.

AFC (Automatic Frequency Control)

Electronic circuit for a lock on the frequencies of TV channels (analog TV).

ASA (American Standard Association)

This association also gave its name to the unit of sensitivity of photographic film and digital sensors. It is used on film and digital cameras. A 50 ASA sensitivity is very low and requires a lot of light; a sensitivity of 100 to 200 ASA is "standard"; a sensitivity of 800 ASA see 1600 is very strong and allows you to take pictures with very little light and no flash.

AFT (Automatic Fine Tuning)

Electronic system to fine tune the reception of a TV channel.

AGC (Automatic Gain Control)

Electronic circuit for an automatic adjustment of the gain of the amplifier according to the reception level. Used in FM reception and analog TV.

Asymmetric

Refers to an electronic system (analog or digital), where the signal is modulated in relation to the mass which also serves as shielding. Unbalanced connection requires two wires, one for the signal and one for ground. This is the most common. The alternative is symmetric mode which provides better noise immunity. Balanced cables require 3 conductors (2 for the signal and one for the mass which serves as shielding).

Air Surround Xtreme

Technology developed by Yamaha for 7.1 audio playback with only two front speakers and a subwoofer.

ATRAC

Sound compression technology used on the MiniDisc. The ATRAC takes into account the psycho-acoustic effects including the masking effect (it only reproduces what the ear is supposed to perceive in the sound image of the music). Designed by Sony, it allows 74 minutes of stereo sound on an MD (minidisc).

ATS or ATP

Programming or automatic channel installation. This function automatically scans for available channels and stores them. This handy feature is often accompanied by automatic channel sorting that automatic assignment the name of the channel.

ALAC

Audio compression algorithm without deterioration used by Apple for the proprietary format of Apple Lossless. This format is used by iPod, iPhone and iPad.

Audyssey DSX

Available on select models, this method expands the soundstage from 5.1 audio programs. The technology uses a re-mastering of the original surround channel 2, 4 or 6. The Audyssey DSX process adapts to the number of speakers connected to the amplifier (7.1, 9.1 or 11.1) to create a more immersive sound stage and therefore realistic.

ALC (Automatic Level Control)

Electronic circuit to automatically adjust the sound recording level to avoid saturation. This circuit behaves much like a dynamic limit compressor. It is not intended to provide a high-fidelity rendering. It is used in camcorders and voice recorders for difficult conditions.

Audyssey MultEQ

This is a calibration system speaker sound level. The calibration is performed using a microphone placed successively at 6 different locations in the listening room. The settings are applied on each speaker crossover frequency, polarity, delay and noise. Digital filtering is also applied to the signal sent to the speakers (2x) and subwoofer (128x).

Audyssey MultEQ XT

The calibration is performed using a microphone placed successively at 8 different locations in the listening room. The settings are applied on each speaker crossover frequency, polarity, delay and noise. Digital filtering is also applied to the signal sent to the speakers (16x) and subwoofer (128x).

Auto Label

This function uses the information in the teletext messages broadcast by the channels to automatically identify and name the TV programs as they are broadcast.

AM (Amplitude Modulation)

Transmit/receive radio technology. Very old, it offers a fairly average quality and a has great sensitivity to disturbance. Completely obsolete, it is now supplanted by FM and, increasingly, digital radio or internet.

Auto Lip Sync

HDMI function to reposition the picture and sound when digital processing can induce shifts.

Autofocus

System ensuring autofocus. As the extent of exposure, this development is carried out on a central area of ​​the photographed subject, or a multitude of points. Most technologies use AF contrast detection. Often inefficient in low light conditions, the AF is assisted by projecting an infrared pattern.

Viewing Angle

Refers to the angle to which it is possible to watch a video screen without loss of image quality.

Active Bright

An image enhancement system from Philips. Active Bright provides High-Definition TV quality by showing clear, razor sharp colours over a wide viewing angle.

Active Control

An image enhancement system from Philips. Active Control improves noise and sharpness continuously at a rate of 60 times per second, thus ensuring an optimal picture experience.

Adapter

Interface unit (with or without wires) between devices with different connectors.

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Data transmission at high speed using the same copper wire used by the telephone companies. More commonly known as "broadband".

Ambilight

Ambilight is a light output projected from the back of a flat TV screen that adjusts the colour and intensity automatically to the image on the screen. The function Ambilight is found on selected flat-screen TVs and makes it less stressful for the eyes to watch TV. Studies have shown that by sending out an appropriate amount of light behind the TV it may prevent stress on the iris of the eye, and thus it becomes more relaxing for your eyes to watch TV. The action on the screen becomes more vivid and closer because Ambilight makes the screen appear larger and more vibrant.

Ambilight Full Surround

Ambilight Full Surround produces a pulsating light on the wall around the TV that perfectly fits the colours and light intensity on all four sides of the image. That way you get a screen that looks like it floats.

Ambilight Surround

Ambilight Surround emits light on 3 sides around the top of the image, so the visual experience is even more intense and immersive.

Anti-Dust Protection System

In the fight against dust Sony has created an exclusive protection system with dual anti-dust function. The system combines an anti-dust coating that acts as a dust shield on the CCD sensor of Digital SLR cameras, with a mechanism that shakes the sensor unit when the camera is turned off. This removes dust particles that have made their way into the camera.

AUX

English abbreviation for Auxiliary device, ie an additional device. An amplifier often has predefined inputs and outputs to a CD player etc. And also an AUX input for connecting unspecified devices.

Advanced HAD technology

This technology reduces image noise that sometimes occurs in conjunction with low light condition.

AV Connection

Audio/Video is a direct input on television and video devices, that gives better recording and playback than a standard antenna connection.